Information Technology Project. Management, Sixth Edition. Note: See the text itself for full citations. Visit compwalsoihassre.cf for more courses. Chapter 2 The Project Management and Information Technology Context. 43 files will be in Microsoft Word, Excel, Access, Project, or in HTML or PDF format. Information Technology Project Management, Revised, 6th ed. 44 Pages · · MB Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers (6th Ed)(gnv64).pdf.
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Information Technology Project Management,. REVISED Sixth Edition. Kathy Schwalbe. Executive Vice President and Publisher: Jonathan. Information Technology Project Management. Page ISBN: Specifically qouted, the book states: "The staffing management plan often. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT Structured Approach to Systems Development 16 Rapid Applications Development (RAD) 16 The.
Functional organizations have managers or vice presidents in specialties such as engineering, manufacturing, information technology, and so on. Their staffs have specialized skills in their respective disciplines. Project organizations have project managers instead of functional managers reporting to the CEO.
Matrix organizations represent the middle ground between functional and project structures. Personnel often report to both a functional manager and one or more project managers. Project managers have the most authority in project organizational structures followed by matrix, and then functional. Describe how organizational culture is related to project management. What type of culture promotes a strong project environment? Organizational culture is a set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviors that characterize the functioning of an organization.
This culture can definitely impact project management. For example, if an organization values project management and follows the guidelines for applying it, it will be much easier to practice good project management. Project work is most successful in an organizational culture where employees identify more with the organization, where work activities emphasize groups, and where there is strong unit integration, high risk tolerance, performance-based rewards, high conflict tolerance, an open-systems focus, and a balanced focus on people, control, and means-orientation.
Discuss the importance of top management commitment and the development of standards for successful project management. Provide examples to illustrate the importance of these items based on your experience on any type of project. Top management can help project managers get adequate resources, approve unique project needs, get cooperation from other parts of the organization, and provide support as a mentor and coach to project managers.
Examples will vary. What are the phases in a traditional project life cycle?
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How does a project life cycle differ from a product life cycle? Why does a project manager need to understand both? These phases do not vary by project. Product life cycles vary tremendously based on the nature of the project.
What makes IT projects different from other types of projects? How should project managers adjust to these differences? IT projects are different from other types of projects because they can be very diverse in terms of size and complexity, they often include team members with very diverse backgrounds and skills, and he technologies involved are also very diverse. Project managers should adjust to these differences by paying careful attention to the goals of the project and the needs of various stakeholders.
Define globalization, outsourcing, virtual teams, and agile project management, and describe how these trends are changing IT project management. Agile project management is a method for managing projects when requirements are unclear or change quickly. You'll use PERT charts on very large projects, whereas most small to medium-sized projects will work fine with Gantt charts. Which assumption would be the MOST important in creating a high level budget? The use of open source programming.
The members of a project team. The quality plan. The hourly rate for project members. That the project relies on a "cookie cutter" approach, duplicating a prior, successful project plan. Aggressively managing the critical path during the execution phase of the project. That project activities which are normally done in a series are done in parallel.
Replacing team members with higher quality to finish the project ahead of schedule. The column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time is called a: A. Resource list B. Resource responsibility chart C. Resource histogram D. Information Technology Project Management.
Page ISBN: Specifically qouted, the book states: "The staffing management plan often includes a resource histogram, which is a column chart that shows the number of resources assigned to a project over time. A checkpoint review in the project plan indicates a: A. Status report is due. Change control meeting. Planned date for user sign-off. Answer: B Explanation: Checkpoints serve as a method where you stop to see what you've accomplished so far; the more numerous the checkpoints, the more likely you are to arrive at a finely tuned product, but the longer the product is going to take to conclude.
What is a reason for reviewing the user requirements document with the client? To gain the client's acceptance of the detailed design.
To verify mutual understanding of project resources. To verify mutual understanding of the detailed project plan. To verify mutual understanding of targeted product performance. To verify understanding of tests that will be done after the product is completed. The first step for initiating the planning process of a project is to: A. Establish a project schedule. Plan the scope of the project. Identify project risks. Prepare the project budget.
Answer: B Explanation: In the planning phase, you develop a scope document that details the scope of the project and a project plan that stipulates how you're going to go about getting the project done. Q A Quality Assurance plans must include: A. An analysis of the system architecture, design and implementation path for each requirement. The management of changes in requirements, architecture, design and source code.
The activities of defect tracking, unit testing, technical reviews, integration testing and system testing. A determination of the extent and ease with which parts of a system can be put to use in other systems. While reviewing the progress of a given project during a weekly project team meeting, the project manager recognizes the team is running behind schedule. The project manager realizes it is still early in the life cycle and realizes that this project can not run late.
Which control mechanism or method can the project manager use to still get the project completed on time without over scheduling resources? Use an Activity Network Method to determine critical path and slack.
Use a Gantt chart and resource histogram to determine critical path, slack and resource leadings. The project manager is tasked with the production of the initial project plan. The project PK manager needs to define the tasks needed for the production of the Physical Design Specification. Which approach should be taken in planning the production of this deliverable? Include a single task with an estimate of the effort and time to complete production.
Assume that the estimates provided for some tasks are higher than actually needed and that they will balance out any low estimates.
Develop a complete list of tasks with estimate of effort, time and resources. What is the BEST approach to conflict resolution? Mutual respect and cooperation B. Flexibility and understanding C. Sincerity with prudent caution D. During the requirements analysis phase a senior business user on a project has requested that a particular function be included in the proposed system.
One of the systems analysts on the team does not agree with the user's request. The project manager has examined the user's requirement and is unsure which option provides the best solution for the company and the user.
The project manager discusses the requirements with the user and decides that what the analysts has provided is valid. The project manager meets with the user a second time, but is unable to persuade them to change their requirement. Which action is the MOST appropriate? Implement the functionality as defined by the senior user's request. Implement the functionality as defined by the systems analyst's recommendation. Put the issue to the project board for resolution and document the outcome of their deliberations.
Hold another meeting to attempt to persuade the senior user to change their view of the way in which their requirement should be met. A project is performing well under budget, however, in order to meet the customer deliverables, the delivery date to the customer will be over two weeks late. There are no PK additional resources to assign to the project. What should the project manager do?
Change the scope of the client specifications in order to deliver a product on the promised delivery date. Notify the customer of the delay, and get the proper approval documented. Follow the change process outlined in the project charter. Since the project is within budget, you do not have to do anything.
The project manager is assigned to a large project that has been in progress for some time. The project team has just completed the design phase of the project and is working on the implementation stage. At this point, which change is possible without incurring the risk of reworking the entire design phase?
Scope B. Mission C. Detailed design D. Under what circumstances would the project manager be required to send a change request to the sponsor and stakeholders? Any time a change request is submitted. When the costs exceed budgeted allowable variances. When there are no feasible alternatives. When the customer agrees to the changes.
Forcing B. Smoothing C. Compromising D. During the course of a database development project, the project manager conducts a review, and notices that the project is running over budget and over schedule. What is the MOST common, non-behavioral reason for projects that exceed budget and schedule? Conducting a project with several high risks. A project with a poorly defined scope. Under allocation of needed resources. Focusing on the quality instead of schedule and budget.
When it appears that a technical limitation will interfere with meeting customer performance objectives, the preferred response is to: A. Develop alternative solutions to the problem. Notify all project stakeholders of the limitation. Update the costs to set a new project baseline. If an issue cannot be resolved and remains a serious threat, it then becomes: A.
An opportunity B. A critical issue C.
Removed from the issue log and put on the project plan as a task D. Which management theory assumes that individuals like to work, want to achieve, and can direct their own efforts? Maslow's theory B.
Information Technology Project Management, Revised, 6th ed.
Theory X C. Theory Y D. The project manager has discovered a problem with the inventory module of the project. Measurements were specified for American Units, but the overseas programmers used International Units. Where in the project could this problem have been avoided?
Project planning B. Project testing C. Project monitoring D. During project execution, a third party, responsible for developing a web utility for a Government project, reports to the project manager.
One of the technologies used in the development has become obsolete. The third party proposes an alternative.
Which action should the project manager take first? Determine the impact on the overall project. Negotiate the best price for the alternative. Assign extra resources to the project.
Have the management sign-off on the new alternative.
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A critical vendor has just notified the project manager that due to circumstances outside of their control, they will be delivering critical supplies for the project two weeks later than originally planned. What is the BEST immediate course of action? Fire the supplier and find a new vendor.
Ask what caused the problem and try to solve it for the vendor. Adjust the project schedule, and seek approval for the changes from the major stakeholders. Renegotiate the price paid to the vendor for the products. Select the MOST effective communication method for providing work instructions and directions.
Verbal request B. Written communication PK C. Video conferencing D. Team meeting Answer: B Explanation: Verbal communication is easier and less complicated than written communication, on the other hand, is an excellent way to get across complex, detailed messages. Identify the MOST efficient intra-team communication tool. Introspection B. Brainstorming C.
Metrics D. Project and operations within a business share many characteristics. Which of the following characteristics specifically relates to projects?
Performed by people. Planned, executed and controlled. Constrained by limited resources. Temporary and unique. Answer: D Source: Schwalbe, Kathy. Page 4. In the second week of implementation,. Ignore the request and continue as planned. Implement the change. Analyze the customer's request. Redefine the original scope. What should be developed first when allocating resources? Sequence scheduling C.
Task list D. The power strategy that involves using one's personal knowledge to get people to change their behavior is called: A.
Coercive power B. Legitimate power C. Expert power D. To reduce project coordination and communication complexities, regular status meetings should be held frequently with the: A. Customer B. Stakeholders C. Project team D. The purpose of Pareto Analysis is to observe the problems and determine their: A. Frequency of occurrence B. Root cause C. Impact D. Fishbone diagrams The company is experiencing financial problems and has instituted company-wide budget cuts.
The budget for an in-house project is cut in half. The manager of the project feels that the project is close to termination. What termination strategy is being used by the company? Termination by extinction B. Termination by addition C. Termination by integration D.
Termination by starvation Answer: D Explanation: The difference between starvation and integration is that starvation results in funding or resource cuts, while integration results in reassignment or redeployment of the resources.
Which one of the following processes is MOST significant to meeting quality management objectives? Inspection B. Trend analysis C. Quality audits D. Quality audits are performed on regular schedule or at random depending on the organizational policies.
Quality audits performed correctly will provide the following PK benefits: Quality audits are generally performed by experienced specialists. A project manager is defining the scope for a project and recognizes that additional work is required for project completion that was not previously defined.
When presenting this information to stakeholders, the project manager is prepared with cist and schedule variance and a new risk assessment. The stakeholders are hesitant to approve the change. What BEST practice can the project manager do to gain approval from the stakeholders? Minimize the change to the stakeholders, absorbing the costs later. Explain the change required in greater depth, pushing for the approval of the stakeholders.
Minimize the change by only giving small portions of the change required at a time. Explain the rational for the change, the consequences if not approved, and how costs could be mitigated through use of an in place contingency plan. Which component is part of an effective communication plan? Data flow diagrams B.
Frequency C. An IT Project Manager is selected for a software package project with a specific deadline and quality requirements. The client has emphasized several times how important the quality of the software is, and they have limited technical support staff. The IT Project Manager recognizes that quality is of utmost importance. Planning it into the project.
Developing careful mechanism to inspect for quality. Striving to do the best job possible.
Conducting quality circle activities. Cost benefit analysis. Requirements specifications. Narrative description of the work to be accomplished. Answer: C Explanation: SOW contains the details of a procurement item in clear, concise terms and includes the project objectives, a description of the work of the project, concise specifications of the product or services required and a project schedule.
Either downloader or seller may prepare the SOW. A Confronting or Collaborating conflict resolution mode will handle conflicts by: A. Having the parties work through their disagreement directly. Avoiding areas of difference and emphasizing areas of agreement. Bargaining and searching for solutions that bring some degree of satisfaction to each party in a dispute.
Exerting one party's viewpoint at the potential expense of another. Which tasks characteristics affects the estimated effort for human resources? Task cost B. Task scope C. Sequence in the critical path D. The project team is in the process of designing and developing a CBT Computer Based Training application to support the deployment of a new system.
Implementing a status reporting process. Developing an understanding of the project sponsor's acceptance criteria. Using performance measurement tools to track and monitor project performance. Which factor has the greatest impact on the actual duration of project tasks? Resource capabilities C. Historical information D.
Identifying and managing the critical path is vital to the success of a project because: A. Staffing peaks and values will affect the quality of the work project. Crashing-cost, or speeding-up cost, on the critical path are higher than for any other project activities. Activities on the critical path do not have any slack time. The starting date must be calculated by working backward from finish to start. As the project manager builds the project team, recruiting the right personalities for the work can be key to the success of the project.
Which of the following is the BEST match of project focus to personality types? Creative focus: attention to detail, structured thinker B.
Technical execution focus: independent thinker, self-starter C. Multidisciplinary focus: loyal, committed D. Problem resolution focus. A project charter and a list of high level project requirements enables the project manager to identify: A. The high level value of the project to the sponsors and users. The definitive project schedule and budget.
A detailed, bottom-up budget. A necessary task in preparation of the Close Out phase is: A. Project review B. Risk assessment C. Change control D. As part of the overall scope definition and project planning in the initiation phase of a project, the project charter and SOW Statement of Work require the project manager to: A.
Investigate industry specific regulations for impact on the plan. Obtain team member agreement on tasks and duration. Include contingencies for unknowns. The project team is nearing the end of development and is ready to start testing the entire application. Which kind of testing will they perform? Module C. Unit D. In the planning stages monies need to be budgeted for which one of the following after PK Close Out tasks?
Re-planning B. Maintenance C. Change control to new project scope D. Which of the following are included in the goals of the Close Out phase? Stakeholder Approval B. Product Testing C. User Training D.
Source: Schwalbe, Kathy. As part of the project closure process the project manager should document the: A. Formal acceptance from stakeholder D. During and approved project, a vendor contacts the project manager requesting a delay in delivering a required product by two weeks. This will delay the project completion time. The project manager explains to the vendors that a delay in shipment will cause the project to run beyond schedule, and tries to negotiate the delivery time.
How might this situation BEST be handled? Explain the impact of a late shipment to the vendor, request at least partial shipment to avoid running beyond the scheduled time of completion, and call a meeting to inform the stakeholders of the project situation. Utilize a project crash schedule to accommodate for the shipment delay and maintain the project completion time.
PK C. Explain to the vendor that the impact of a late delivery will cause the project to run beyond schedule, request the vendor to compensate your company for penalties caused by the late shipment, and inform the stakeholders of the project the situation.
Inform the stakeholders of the project the schedule delay and get approval to use another vendor to deliver the product. A long pending issue has begun to involve and affect more people, thus generating many dependencies. How should the project manager BEST handle this situation? Escalate it to upper management. Break the issue into logical sub-issues.
Baseline the project schedule. Perform risk management. Given a limited resource from a cost-functional group, which of the following will help insure follow-through?
Get approval from the manager of the resource. Earn the respect of the resource. Try to gain direct control over the resource. Let the resource do what they are told. Which tool is the MOST effective for classifying issues by their frequency of occurrence?
Control charts B. Flow charts C.
Pareto diagrams D. The project manager has been asked by the customer to make significant changes to the project. These changes were not addresses in the Design Document or Project Scope. Inform the customer that changes to the scope are not allowed. Implement the requested changes as requested immediately. Redesign the entire project from scratch. What performance reporting technique will the project manager use to determine project results over time to determine if performance is improving or deteriorating?
Status reports B. Pareto reports C.
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Trend analysis D. Of all the potential conflict in a project, which one is most detrimental to team performance and results?
Which part of the project planning document is used to control scope creep? PK A. Executive e-mail to all staff on project objectives and desired outcomes B. Executive meetings with stakeholders to explain the project objectives and desired outcomes C.
Town hall meetings with project team providing information and stakeholders having the ability to ask questions D. The project team has been working to complete the scope definition and is presenting the scope statement to the sponsor customer asks for changes. As the project manager, which is the best approach? Listen to the request and indicate more resources will be required in order to complete the project on the same date B.
Accept the changes and go away to come back with a changed scope statement C. Indicate that the time line for the project to deliver will be extended D.
Senior management involvement in projects is critical to success. Which of the following is not a good example of senior management involvement? A Review and assignment of resources according to WBS B Involvement in the project charter and scope C Definition an approval of project scope D Signing off on key deliverables Answer: A Explanation: This answer makes the most sense because it is a well known good standard practice that senior management sign off on key deliverables, and the same is true for involvement in the project charter and scope.
Defining and approving the project scope is a great practice for senior management. Review and assignment of resources according the WBS is not a good example of senior management involvement because this is a function of the project manager. This interferes with the project manager's decision making and could hinder the project.
Answer A is really the only possible answer. Which on the following should be included in a project charter and scope definition? This will be addressed during design and development. The work breakdown structure cannot be started until the charter and scope definition have been completed.
The critical path method has nothing to do with the charter or scope definition and is a methodology implemented by the project manager upon completion of the work breakdown structure. The completion criteria is the only possible answer as it indicates the criteria needed to produce the deliverables.
Which of the following is an output of the initiation phase of a project? Which of the following techniques is used for tracking the project risk? Which method is a valid approach for developing project task duration estimates? ISBN: The book states: PK "It is also helpful to review similar projects and seek the advice of experts in estimating activity durations.
Which factor has the greatest impact on the estimated per unit labour cost for a project? Which is the most effective method for generating support for your project plan? It does not affect the actual duration of tasks.
Within information Technology projects, communications between the project manager and the project team members s place: A By written and oral communication. ISBN: The book states, "Effective distribution of information depends on project managers and project team members having good communications skills. Communicating includes many different dimensions such as writing, speaking, listening, and project personnel need to use all of these dimensions in their daily routines. As a rule of thumb for QA Quality Assurance activities , how many hours of downstreams QA Quality Assurance each hour spent on technical reviews early in the project?
What is a possible acceptable outcome from a review of the project requirements with the client? A Create a negotiated requirements list based upon compromise B Agree to disagree on some requirements and move forward with the planning phase C Agree on revisions that need to be made to the requirements , then resubmit for review and approval D Agree on revisions that need to be made to the requirements, then move forward with the planning phase Answer: C QUESTION A When does defect resolutions occur within the project life cycle?
When the authority to approve revisions of scope is in questions, the project manager should: A Ask the project sponsor B Review the original project charter C Refer to the change project plan D Make a decision based on the company's organizational chart PK Answer: B Source: Schwalbe, Kathy.
ISBN: The book states, "A project charter can be as simple as a one-page form or memo from a senior manager briefly describing the project and listing the responsibilities and authority of the new project managers and stakeholders.
Monday, July 7, Purpose This standard will ensure accountability for the resources allocated to information technology IT projects and ensure that a consistent approach will be used to manage IT projects throughout the project management life cycle.
Standard All information technology projects shall comply with the following directives: 1. The North Dakota Project Management Guidebook must be leveraged as guidance for best practices in how to manage a project. A project repository must be maintained by the performing organization to manage and retain critical project documents. If the performing organization chooses to manage documents electronically, the following provisions must be followed: 2. Documents must be stored on a secured environment owned by the state.
Documentation to be retained in repository includes: 2. All documents identified in this standard. Upon completion, all documentation must be retained for a period of no less than 3 years. Agencies may choose to establish individual records retention policies that include the same or greater documentation requirements and a retention schedule of no less than 3 years. An executive steering committee ESC shall be established to provide management support to the project.
The committee members shall include at a minimum, the project manager, project sponsor, executive level business owners, and optionally, executive-level vendor representation. The committee shall be responsible for reviewing the status at project milestones, authorizing significant changes to the project plan, and facilitating decision-making. The committee shall meet quarterly, or on a more frequent basis as defined by the membership of the ESC.
A Project Manager must be assigned to manage the project. A project charter shall be developed and executed to initiate the project and to secure commitment for the resources e. The project charter shall be completed prior to entering the planning or execution phases. The ESC shall formally approve the project charter.
After approval by the ESC, and prior to any planning or execution activities a copy of the project charter shall be submitted to the OA assigned to the project. Prior to signing vendor contracts or accruing project expenditures for planning and execution phases, a copy electronic of the approved project charter shall be submitted to the OA assigned to the project.
A project plan shall be developed as the primary planning document for the project. The project plan shall identify specific milestones throughout the project and their associated cost, schedule, and any associated phase and deliverables. The ESC shall formally approve the project plan. Prior to submission to the ESC, the OA assigned to the project shall review the project plan for general compliance with directive 6.
After approval by the ESC, a copy of the project plan shall be submitted to the OA assigned to the project. A Project Startup Report shall be prepared. The intent of this document is to convey information gleaned from the project charter and project plan to the Legislative IT Committee at the time when the project has completed the planning process and is entering the execution phase the information contained in this document should not be new.
It should be taken from the existing referenced documents. The reported budget and schedule will be used to calculate variance during execution of the project. This report is due within 30 days of submission of the final project plan and is submitted to the OA assigned to the project. A project status report must be prepared at least monthly. The report should include an executive summary, budget and schedule including progress against budget and schedule baselines , issues, risks, project accomplishments and upcoming activities.
Throughout the life of the project, if changes occur which would impact the project objectives as stated in the original project charter, or changes to cost, schedule, scope or quality as defined in the project plan, those impacts shall be included in the project status report.Therefore, it's important to make sure the SOW aligns with the scope of the project.
An IT Project Manager is selected for a software package project with a specific deadline and quality requirements. A win-lose scenario. Quality audits are performed on regular schedule or at random depending on the organizational policies. Tim also understands that a successful project could lead to other work with Husky Air. A project is performing well under budget, however, in order to meet the customer deliverables, the delivery date to the customer will be over two weeks late.
The critical path method has nothing to do with the charter or scope definition and is a methodology implemented by the project manager upon completion of the work breakdown structure. In addition, one can look at the project factors for successful and not-so-successful projects to see what may be happening on those projects.