7TH STD SAMACHEER KALVI SOCIAL SCIENCE BOOK

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TN state board 7th standard changed syllabus and new textbooks will be Samacheer kalvi Class VII text books are aligned subject wise for Term 1, Term 2 and Term 3. Other subjects are Mathematics, Science and Social Science. You can. Pebbles presents “ TN. 7th Std. Social Science ”, dealing with the structure and dynamics of modern human societies. The best way to form a clear. 7th Std Social Science - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. This book has been prepared by the Directorate of School Education.


7th Std Samacheer Kalvi Social Science Book

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Their Revenue: The land revenue was the main source of income of the idols were kept in temples. The Chola kingship was hereditary. The Chola Government. Proper land survey was made. Lands were Chola royal family followed the principle that eldest son should succeed classified as taxable land and non taxable land. There were many grades the king to the Chola throne.

The heir apparent was called Yuvaraja. Land revenue differed according to these grades. The Chola monarchs enjoyed enormous powers and privileges. They lived kind or both according to the convenience of the farmers. Besides land in very big royal palaces. Kings were assisted by ministers and officials revenue, there were some other sources of income like customs and tolls. Taxes on mines, ports, forests and salt pans were collected. Chola kings had tiger as their royal emblem. Tax burden was more on the society.

The Cholas had an efficient army and navy. The Chola army consisted of elephantry, cavalry and infantry. Soldiers were given proper Nadu: Nadu was one of the important administrative units of the Cholas. Commanders enjoyed the ranks of nayaks and senapathis. Nadus had representative assemblies. The heads of the nadus were The army was divided into 70 regiments.

The Chola army had 60, called Nattars. The council of nadu was called nattavai.

Representatives elephants. Very costly Arabian horses were imported to strengthen the of the Nattavais and nattars promoted agriculture. They also took care cavalry.

The Chola kings defeated the Cheras at Kandalur salai. The of the protection of the people and tax collection. The Chola navy was formidable one in South India. With the help of their navy the Cholas controlled Coromandal and Malabar coasts.

Bay of Bengal became Village administration: The entire responsibility of the village the Chola lake. The Chola army and navy together had 1,50, trained administration was in the hands of the village assembly called Grama soldiers. The armies of the tributary chieftains also joined Chola army Sabha. The lowest unit of the Chola administration was the village unit.

Generally the Chola army was led by the King or The village assemblies looked after the maintenance of peace, tanks, Yuvaraja. The village assemblies were in charge of the payment of taxes due from Justice: The Chola king was the chief justice. The Chola kings gave the villages to the treasury. They regulated public markets and helped enough care for the judicial administration.

The village level judicial people at times of famine and flood. Assemblies provided provisions administration was carried on by the village assembly. Minor disputes were heard by the village assembly. Disputes were settled with proper for education. The village assemblies possessed absolute authority over evidences. Punishments were awarded by the Judicial officers. The trial the affairs of villages.

They maintained law and order in every village. Brahmin settlement was called Chathurvedi mangalam. Local administration: The most important feature of the Chola Variyams: Village Assemblies carried on village administration administration was the local administration at districts, towns and villages effectively with the help of variyams.

Male members of the society were level. Uttaramerur inscriptions speak much about the Chola the members of these variyams. Composition of these variyams, administration. Village autonomy was the most unique feature of Chola qualification and duration of membership differed from village to village. There were many variyams in every village. Niyaya variyam administered justice, Thottavariyam looked after flower gardens. The Dharma variyam looked after charities and temples.

Erivariyam was incharge of tanks. The pon variyam was incharge of the finance. The Thieves, drunkards and people who had undergone punishments were Gramakariya variyam looked after the works of all committees.

The also disqualified from contesting election from kudavolai system. They rendered honourary service. The village officials were paid salary either Try to know more about kudavolai system in cash or in kind. Good functioning of these variyams increased the with the help of your teacher efficiency of the local administration of the Cholas. Uttaramerur inscriptions talk about Kudavolai 1. Ebrolu system. This system was a very notable and unique feature of the village 2.

Nandalur administration of the Cholas. There were 30 wards in each village. Kanchi representative for each ward was elected through Kudavolai system. Talakad Names of the contestants from whom one could be chosen were written 5. Gangai konda on palmleaf tickets. These palmleaves were put into a pot and suffled. Persons 6. Semponmari whose name tickets were picked up by the boy were declared elected.

Kottai Like that 30 members for thirty wards were elected. This kind of peculiar election system was called kudavolai system. Out of the thirty elected 8. Vilgnam members, twelve members were appointed to the Annual committee, 9. Venadu twelve members were appointed as the members of the Garden committee and six members to the Tank committee.

Members of th standing committee and a Gold committee were also elected. The people of the Chola empire were more benefited by the Qualification of the members were given. A person who could be chosen Chola administration. Historians like K. Neelakanda Sastri through Kudavolai system must have age from 35 to He should possess one veli land and of a house built in a taxable land on his own appreciates the administrative efficiency of the Chola kings. The best site. He should have knowledge about vedas and mantras.

Persons aspects of the Chola administration were followed by the rulers of the who killed brahmins or women or cow or children were disqualified. Kudavolai system - Thottavariyam 3 The Cholas had a very strong navy. Higher officials - Land tax 4 Village assemblies were responsible for the military, 3.

Members of variyam - Peruntaram administration. Flower garden - Palm leaf Cholas. Write briefly: Valankai and Idankai caste groups 3. A story had been told about the origin of the division of these two groups.

A small summary of the story is given Learning Objectives: When the sangam Chola King Karikala enquired these disputes, 1. To enable pupil to know about the social and economic life the group which stood on the right hand side of the King was called of people during the Chola period. Valankai group. The group that stood on the left hand side of the King 2. To enable pupil to understand the religious life of the people was known as Idangai group.

Valangai group had enjoyed more during the Chola period. They had the privilege of using palanquins, umbrellas and cheppals. Women The Chola rule witnessed a large scale development in all spheres of Valangai group rounded the upper cloth across the right shoulder.

Writings of historians, inscriptions, temples, literature and The Idangai group was considered socially inferior. They did not enjoy monuments speak much about the social, economic and religious life of any rights. They paid heavy taxes. Inspite of these social divisions there the people during the Chola period.

Professor K.

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Neelakanda Sastri was social harmony. Economic prosperity, the benevolent attitude and religious faiths Education: Chola Kings gave importance for the development of of the Chola kings were the main factors which contributed more for education. There were Veda padasalas, Buddha viharas and Jain pallis. During the reign of Rajendra I, two colleges were there at Rajarajtéléchargementurvedi Mangalam and Tribhuvanam. The mutt of Thiruvavaduturai had run a school of medicine.

Thirumukkudal temple Social Condition: The Chola society was peaceful one. There were was utilised for running a college and hospital.

Apart from the medical different sections in society. At the same time, the society was based as and religious education, general education was also imparted. According to the Varnasrama, society was divided into Scholarships were given to students.

The poor and unprivileged people lived in slums. Bonded labourers Status of Women: Women were given high status and freedom in the were also there. Professionals like carpenters, weavers, blacksmiths, Chola society. Chastity and modesty were considered important. The masons, goldsmiths also lived there. Slavery also existed. There were women of upper classes enjoyed the right to property. Some queens several grades among the slaves. The details about the sale of slaves were associated with the administration of the kingdom.

Queens gave are recorded in the inscriptions. Greater social freedom prevailed among liberal donations to temples. Queen Sembian Mahadevi and Kundavai were patrons of temples. Monogamy was prevalent in society.

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Less the upper classes. Gold and pearl were used in making jewels and ornaments. Women were also appointed as officers in Kanchipuram was an important centre of textile industry. The weavers the Chola Government. There were child marriages among the higher of Kanchipuram were recognised by the king and they had the previlage castes.

Women who were talented in music and dance were attached of making royal robes to the king Uthama Chola.

Salt pans of to the temples. They performed programmes during festival times. There Marakanam, Kanyakumari were commercially famous. Writings of Morcopolo and some inscriptions speak about the position of women during the Chola period. Foreign Trade: Elephants, cardamom, cotton, wife entered into the funeral pyre of the dead husband. Arabian horses were imported. Mahabalipuram, Wife burnt herself and died along with her husband.

Kavirippumpattinam, and Korkai were Chola ports which were useful for foreign trade. The liberal taxation policies of King Kulothunga I Economic condition: The Chola rule witnessed the prosperity of trade encouraged both internal and foreign trade.

Internal and foreign trade and commerce. Income through agriculture yield, land tax, trade tax led to the economic, cultural and religious developments in Chola territory. King was the owner of all public land. Special officers were appointed to look into Religious condition: Government money was spent Chola kings were saivites.

They built many Siva silver and copper coins. Merchant guilds were functioning to take care temples. Parantaka — I, for the welfare of the merchants and commerce. Agriculture was the main King Gandraditya and his occupation of the people. The ownership of the land had a high social queen Sembiyan madevi value. The landlords were members of the village administrative units. Parantaka — I covered the Trade and commerce: The Chola rulers contributed more for the Siva temple with gold at development of cottage industries.

Metal images and utensils were made Chidambaram. King in gold, silver, bronze, copper, brass etc. The economic prosperity and religious contributions increased Rajendra-I constructed Siva temple at Polonaaruva in Ceylon and the standard of life and values of the Chola society.

By building many Gangaikonda Cholapuram. Lands, Jewels and vessels were donated temples and mutts, the Chola kings contributed for the development of to these temples. The royal patronage increased the influence of Hinduism more. The temples and festivals of the Chola period will Chola Kings were tolerant towards other religions.

Vishnu ever speak about the glory of the Cholas. Chola rulers supported the spread of Vaishnavisim. Saint Ramanujar was the contemporary of Chola Kings. Try to know more about the great saint Ramanujar Thiruvalangadu copper plates, Karanthai plates and Anbil plates talk about the religious conditions of the Chola period. Masimaham, Learning out come: Mahamaham, Karthigai, Thaipusam, Sivarathri, Chithiraivizha, 1.

Pupil will be able to tell about the social and economic life Aipasivizha, were important festivals celebrated during the Chola period. Pupil will be able to explain about the growth of internal and Kanchipuram were important temple cities.

Bakthi songs were sung in external trades. Some people followed Buddhism and Jainism. Pupil will be able to tell about the religious conditions of the Cholas Temples acted as centres of learning also.

Sati is a marriage ceremony. Nambi 2. Agriculture was the backbone of social life. Andar Nambi compiled the 3. Brahmins were engaged in the works of the temple. Salt pans were there in Kanchipuram. Nathamunigal compiled the 5. Chola kings followed the policy of religious tolerance. Scenes of Periyapuranam, II. Learning objectives: Weavers of Kanchi had the privilege of making royal robes to 1.

To enable pupil to know the development of literature under 4. To enable pupil to acquire knowledge about the development IV. Vanavan Mahadevi - Weavers of Kanchi The development of literature, art and architecture of the Chola 3. Patron of temples - Sundara Chola period promoted the cultural value of the Chola rule.

The Cholas made 4. Kaveripoompattinam - Kundavi lot of improvements in these fields. The temples built by the Cholas 5. Royal robes - Karikala Cholan increased the value of the bakthi culture of Tamil country. The development of the Chola literature, art and architecture created a V.

What were the four castes created by varnasrama? Write about the foreign trade during the Chola period. Write about the festivals of the Chola period.

Which cities were known as temple cities? The Chola rule marked a milestone in the history of Tamil literature. The Chola kings gave many concessions and patronage to VI. Answer in detail: Tamil scholars and writers. Many great Tamil poets namely, Kalladanar, 1.

Write about the status of women during the Chola rule. Write in detail about the temples of the Cholas. Literary styles like epics, parani, kovai, ula, kalambakam, pillaitamil and new works on grammar were famous during that period. Writing meikkirthis, narration of historical incidents, singing songs on religious heros, were new literary trends of.

Kalladanar wrote Kalladam about lord Siva. Thiruttakkadevar Art and architecture: The Chola kings built many temples throughout wrote Seevagasinthamani to spread the idea of Jainism among the Tamil their kingdoms. The temples of early Cholas are found in large number people. This work is respected and ranked as one of the mahakaviyams in the former Pudukottai region.

These Chola temples reveal the gradual in Tamil. Jayamkondan composed Kalingathuparani during the period evolution of the Chola art and architecture.

The Chola kings earlier of Kulothunga-I. It talks about second kalinga war. Later they built brick temples. Kambar wrote Kambaramayanam. The king also conferred the title Kavichakkravarthi on Kambar. Kambar had also written Sadagopar andhadhi, Mummani kovai. Sekkilar wrote Periya puranam during the period of Kulothunga-II. Pugalendhi composed Nalavenba. Avvaiyar wrote Aathichudi and Kondrai vendan.

Thirugnanasambandar wrote Thevaram. Literary Works: Kulothungan kovai and Thanjaivanan kovai are famous Tamil literature of that period. Great epics namely Valayapathi, Kundalakesi, Viracholiyam, Nannool belong to this period. Thevaram, Brahadeeswarar Temple at Tanjore Nandikalambagam, Bharatha venba and Sivgnanabodam are important literary works of this period.

The Chola literature increased the cultural The first Chola ruler Vijayalaya Chola built temple at values of the Chola society. This is a stone temple. It is one of the finest examples of the early Chola temple architecture. Balasubramaniya temple of Parani is a form of war poem.

Parani explains the Kannanur in Pudukottai region and Thirukkatalai temple were built during circumstances which led to the war. Nageswarar temple at Kumbakonam is famous It also gives details about war. King Parantaka-I built Koranganatha temple at. Muvarkoil of Kodumbalur.

They are roofs. The value of sculpture is very much felt on Chola works. The good examples of the later Chola architecture and sculpture. Realism dominated sculpture of the Chola period. Scenes from Ramayanam Mahabharatam, Puranas and Besides all these temples of the Chola period, the greatest lives of the 63 Nayanmars are sculptured in narrative panels on the landmark in the history of south Indian architecture is Brhadeeswarar walls of temples.

This is also called as big temple. It has many architectural significance. It was built by Rajaraja-I. This is the largest and tallest temple Tamilnadu. Rajdendra Chola built a temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram which is also equally famous. King Rajendra Chola added credit to the Chola art and architecture.

This temple is first of its kind in the south Indian architecture. Rajaraja-II built Airavatheeswarar temple at Dharasuram. Special features of Chola architecture: The Cholas followed the Pallava style of architecture.

Sanctum of the Chola temples are both circular and square in size. Inner side of the external walls and the sanctum were beautified. On the upper side of the sanctum special vimanas are built. Dome shaped sikhara and kalasa were also there on the top of Gopurams. Chola temples are noted for the sculptures and ornamental works. Gopurams of these temples were meaningful. Many temples are having pillared mandapams namely arthamandapa, Portraits: The Cholas excelled the Pallavas in the art of portrait making.

Sculptures and inscriptions are also The best specimens of portraits are found on the walls of Koranganatha fixed on the walls of these temples. They are good examples Sculpture: Stone and metal sculputures are found in plenty in Chola of Chola art of portrait making. They depict the socio religious ideas of the Chola period. The Nataraja sculpture is world famous not only for its beauty but also for Paintings: The art of paintings flourished. Figures were painted with its spirutual meaning.

Vishnu idol is placed in Vaishnava temples. A realism. The proficiency of the Chola painters are seen on their paintings. Paintings in Big temple are good examples. Scenes of Periyapuranam The Cholas made use of sculptures to decorate the walls, pillars and are beautifully depicted.

Inscriptions refer about Ariyakuthu, Chakki koothu and Santhi Rajaraja-I and Rajendra contributed more for the development of the koothu.

Chola literature speaks about the cultural glory of the Cholas. Hundreds of temples built by the Chola kings. Particularly Music: During the Chola period the art of music was developed. Brahadeeswarar Big temple temple at Tanjore and temple at Twenty three panns were used in music. The seven music alphabets sa, Gangaikonda Cholapuram are cultural monuments of the Cholas.

The ri, ga, ma, pa, da, ni were used. The hymns of Alwars and Nayanmars glorious Chola culture created very big impact on Tamil society and were sung in every temple. Nambiandar nambi and Nathamuni imbibed lot of cultural values like bakthi upon the Tamil society. Books were written Learning outcomes: Several musicians were appointed in Brahadeeswarar temple. Pupil can tell about the cultural development during the Chola Drums, udukkai, veena, flute were famous music instruments.

Sagadakkottigal formed a group of musicians. Endowments were made 2. Pupil will be able to explain the growth of literature under to promote music. Musicians were honoured by the kings. Temples the Cholas. Pupil will be able to tell about the development of the art and architecture of the Cholas. The Chola kings patronised the art of dance. Lord Siva was represented as the exponent of Karana dance.

Write true or false: Natarajar temple at Chidamparam and Sarangapani temple at 1. Kalladam was written by Avvaiyar. Kumbakonam have dancing poses of Lord Nataraja. Rajaraja-I 2. Kambaramayanam was written by Sekkilar appointed dancing girls in the big temple at Tanjore. There were 3. King Vijayalaya built Choleswara temple two dance directors to co-ordinate these dancing girls.

Dance dramas 4. Chola temples are both circular and square in size were also performed on stages at festival times. Chola kings made 5. Brahadeeswarar temple is a famous Chola temple endowments to promote the art of dancing.

The Cholas promoted the art of drama. Music and dance 1. Many types of theatres and stages were there 2. Rajarajeswara natakam and Rajarajavijayam were 3. Drama actors received honours girls in the big temple. Koothu is one type of drama. Koothus were also. Kulothungan pillai Tamil was composed by a Jayamkondan b Ottakoothar c Thirutakkadevar 2.

Sekkilar wrote a Nalavenba b Periyapuranam c Aathichudi 3. Best specimen of portraits are found on the walls of a Koranganatha temple b Choleswara temple c Thirukkattalai temple.

Sadagopar Anthathi - Kambar 2. Sekkilar - Kulothunga-I 3. Thirukkattalai temple - Aditya-I 4. Sun God Temple - Rajaraja-I 5. Big temple - Periyapuranam. Write names of the scholars of Chola period. Mention the works of Ottakoothar.

Write short notes on Brahadeeswarar temple. Write four points about the paintings of the Cholas. Write about the sculptures at Dharasuram temple. Write about the literary development during the Chola period. Write about the development of art and architecture of the Cholas. To enable pupil to know about the sources for the study of the second Pandya empire.

To enable pupil to know about the rulers of the second Pandya empire. To enable pupil to know the achievements and importance of the second Pandya emperors. The Pandyas are one among the great Moovendars of the Tamil country. The Pandyas who ruled Tamil country during the sangam period, are called sangam Pandyas.

They were called as first Pandyas. After the fall of the great pallavas and the cholas once again the Pandyas ruled the Tamil country from AD to AD. They were called as second Pandyas. Totally the Pandyas ruled the Tamil country three times for about years. Madurai was the capital of the Pandyas. Fish was the royal emblem of the Pandyas. History of the second Pandya empire can be written with the help of the relevant source materials.

Plenty of sources are available in this regard. Velvikkudi plates, Seevaramangalam plates. Thalavaipuramplates and chinnamanur plates speak about the war victories and administration of the Pandya rulers. Inscriptions, coins, monuments and the writings of foreign travellers speak about the Pandya rulers and their achievements.

The informations of Maravarman can be obtained from the inscriptions of Achirupakkam, Chidambaram, Tirukkovilur. The second Pandya Kings issued coins with names and titles of the rulers. Sir Walter Elliot writes about the Chola coins. Through these numismatic sources we come to know about the economic condition of the Pandya period.

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Few gold coins tell about the rulers of Pandya Kingdom. These coins have a fish or a pair of fishes, the symbol of Pandya kingdom on one side. Names of the Pandya kings are engraved on the other side of the coins. Many coins bear the name Sundra Pandya. These coins talk about the conquests and defeats of the Pandyas. Inscriptions excavated from Chidambaram tell about the personal courage of the Pandya kings in the battle fields and details about the places captured by the Pandya rulers.

Inscriptions of Pudukottai throw much light on the judicial and revenue administration of the second Pandyas. Thiruvandipuram inscriptions explain about the warfare of Maravarman Sundara Pandya. Srirangam inscriptions tell about the victories of Pandya kings. Thirunelveli inscriptions give the names and the titles of the Pandya kings.

The cave temples found in Tirumalaipuram, rule. More informations are given about Maravarman Sundara Pandya— Tiruparankundram, Anaimalai, Kundrakudi and Kalugumalai are the I, in the inscriptions of Gudimiyanmalai, Rangamali, Thenkasi and best monuments of the Pandyas period. The Meenakshi temple in Tiruvateeeswaram.

They wonderful monuments, which show the architectural and the sculptural also speak about the wealth that Maravarman had taken from cheras talent of the Pandyas. Foreign writers like Wassaf and Morcopolo write Lands donated to Brahmin scholars were called interesting information about the rule of Pandya kings.

The political and Brahmadeyas economic conditions of Pandyas are described by these writers. Maravarman Sundara Pandya - II: The Pandyas expanded in north upto Nellore and Cuddapha districts. He kingdom. Vikraman was succeeded by Jatarvarman Kulasekara-I. He had title as Tribhuvana Chakravarthy for conquering Elam, Kongu and the chola kingdom. In History one century means a period of hundred years. During his time the Pandya kingdom became the Pandya empire. The cholas completely disappeared from the Tamil scene.

The hoysalas Jatavarman Kulasekara-I: He was son retreated to the Mysore highlands. Ceylon was conquered. The of Vikraman.

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His Meikeerthi is a very good source. He fought and Kongudesam became a province of the Pandya kingdom. His reign may be ruler was defeated.

Due to these victories Jatavarman Sundara Pandya- regarded as an important land mark in the history of the second Pandyas. He ruled Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Thirunelveli and Kanyakumari areas. He created the Rajagambira Chaturvedi mangalam, consisting Religious Endowments: Jatavarman Sundara Pandya-I provided the of Brahmadeyas.

He roof of Nataraja Shrine in Chidambaram with gold tiles. He built a hall appointed Maravarman SundaraPandya as his crown prince. He rendered the same golden service to the Ranganatha swami shrine in Srirangam. So he Maravarman SundaraPandya - I: He also endowed liberally to some the brother of Jadavarman kulasekara.

He had titles like Kaliyugarama, Jain pallis. He patronised Saivism, Vaishnavism and Hinduism. He AdisayaPandyadeva. He fought wars against the cholas and the Kongu kings. Maravarman sundaraPandya captured some portions Maravarman Kulasekaran—I: During his of Trichy and modern Pudukottai districts.

A good part of the Vishnu reign foreign writer Morcopolo visited Tamil country and wrote about temple at Tiruttangal was built. After him Jadavarman Kulasekara— II it. The social condition of the Tamil country was known from the writings ruled for sometime.

Maravarman captured kollam from Chera nadu. His Kingdom expanded till cholanadu I. He built the outer 2. Fish was the emblem of Pandyas wall of Nellaiyapper temple in Tirunelveli.

The Anaimalai cave temple belongs to the Pandya period War of success among the Pandya heir apparents made the 4. Jatavarman kulasekaran was the last ruler of the second Pandyas.

Malik Kafur invaded and carried away as much loote as possible. The whole Pandya country II. Choose the best answer: The second Pandya rule which lasted for years marked a significant land mark in the history of Tamil 1. Ponveintha perumal was the title of a Jatavarman Kulasekar-I country. Learning outcome: Kollam kondan was the title given to a Maravarman Kulasekara-I 1.

Pupil will be able to know about the sources of Pandyas. Pupil will be able to know about the achievements of the c Maravarman Sundara Pandya- I Pandya rulers and their contributions.

Second Pandyas ruled from 3. Pupil will be able to know about the expansion of the Pandya a A. To enable pupil to know about the contribution of the history of the Pandyas. Pandyas to art and architecture. To enable pupil to know about the growth of language and 1. Malavaraya - Ceylon literature during the rule of the Pandyas. Madurai - Maravarman Vickrama 3. To enable pupil to understand the development of sculpture Pandya and painting during the Pandya rule.

Subagiri fortress - Thirumalaipuram 4. Viceroy of Chengleput - Capital Pandya kings made significant contributions for the progress of 5. Cave temple - Maravarman Sundara Pandya literature, art and architecture.

They made important milestones and remarkable turning points in the cultural history of Tamil country. Write about the numismatic sources of the Pandyas? Who was called Adisaya Pandya deva?

Sangam literature is very useful to 4. Write about Maravarman Kula sekara-I. Write about Malikkafur. Several inscriptions and copper plates, like Velvikkudiplates, VI. Write answers in detail: Seevaramangalamplates, 1. Write about the sources for the study of the Pandyas.

Thalavaipuramplates, 2. Write about the achievements of Jatavarman sundra Srivilliputhurplates, Pandya-I Sivakasiplates and Chinna manur plates are very much valuable to study about the development of literature, art and architecture.

Several Pandya coins are also available. Some vaishavite literary works of the Pandya period are given very high position literary works give information about the Pandyas. The writings of in the Indian religion and literature. The Pandya literatures like foreigners like Marcopolo, Hiuen Tsang are useful sources. Stone Thiruppavai and Thiruppallandu have enriched the Indian religion and inscriptions of Pandya kings are useful to fix the geneology.

Tamil literature: They organised three Tamil sangams at Madurai namely Naidadham. Sri Kaviraya wrote four books namely Mudhal sangam, Idai sangam and Kadai sangam. Sangam was an Thirukkalathinatharula, Thiruvannamalaiyar vannam, Seyur Murugan ula, assembly of Tamil poets and scholars. Agathiyam, Tholkappiyam, Rathinagiriula. King Varathungarama Pandya wrote three books namely Silappathikaram, Ettuthogai, Pathupattu and many valuable Tamil literary pathitrupathu, Kalithurai andhathi and Venba andhathi.

Mayilai nathar works were released in these Tamil sangam meetings. Nakkeerar was the chief Tamil poet of the Pandya court. The city of Madurai was wrote commentary on Nannool. Adiyarkkunallur wrote commentary known as Tamil koodal.

Senavrayar wrote commentary on Tholkappiyam, Parimelazhagar wrote commentaries on Thiurkkural. Request your teacher to explain more about three Tamil sangams and sangam literature Art and architecture: The Pandyas contributed more for the development of architecture. Gopuras, Prakaras, Vimanas, Garbagrahas Saivite literature: According to the informations given by a foreign are the special features of the Pandya temple architecture. Temples at writer Hiuen Tsang and Velvikudi plates, the Pandya kings worked for Madurai, Chidambaram, Kumbakonam, Thiruvannamalai, Srirangam the development of literature, art and architecture.

Particularly they are good examples for the development of Pandya architecture. The contributed more for the development of Saivite literature. According to Thirugnanasambandar influenced his contemporary Pandya king historian A. Saint Manikavasagar composed the divine hymn temple at Madurai and Aranganathar temple at Srirangam. He also wrote Thiruchirrambalakovai. The saiva nayanmars were more respected.

Saivism flourished with their patronage. Rock cut temple: The Pandya period is marked as renaissance period in the field of rock cut temple. The rock cut temples are known for their Vaishnavite literature: The Pandya kings patronised Alwars and merit.

More than 50 rock cut temples were excavated from the Pandya vaishnavite literature. Periyazhvar and his daughter Andal contributed greatly for the progress of Vaishnavism. Andal composed the famous kingdom. More rock cut temples are found in Thirupparankundram, Thiruppavai. Nammalvar composed Thiruppallandu.

Cave temples are The second Pandya kings also promoted structural temples. Rock cut caves were The Vadapadrasayi temple at Srivilliputhur, Siva temple at also there. Ambasamudhram, Vijayanarayana temple at Nanguneri, Lakshmi narayana temple at Athur are some of the famous structural temples.

Structural temples: Structural temples were built on stones. They Pandya rulers built big gopurams at the entrance of the temples. Pandyas were simple in style. Each temple consists of Garbagraha, arthamandapa built temples mandapas, gopurams at Chidambaram and Srirangam.

Such structural stone temples are found in Kovilpatty, Thiruppathur and Madurai. The Pandya kings constructed Kulasekara Pandya built arthamandapa, manimandapa and sannathi in structural temples at Ambasamuthram, Thiruppathur, Mannarkudi, every temple.

Internal during their period. Pandya rulers renovated Alagarkoil and structures of these temples were constructed in a planned manner. Jambukeswara temples. Pandya sculptures are beautiful and ornamental. Some sculptures are engraved on single stone. They have got more messages and values. Writings of Morcopolo and some inscriptions speak about the position of women during the Chola period.

Elephants, cardamom, cotton, wife entered into the funeral pyre of the dead husband. Arabian horses were imported.

Mahabalipuram, Wife burnt herself and died along with her husband. Kavirippumpattinam, and Korkai were Chola ports which were useful for foreign trade. The liberal taxation policies of King Kulothunga I Economic condition: The Chola rule witnessed the prosperity of trade encouraged both internal and foreign trade.

Internal and foreign trade and commerce. Income through agriculture yield, land tax, trade tax led to the economic, cultural and religious developments in Chola territory. King was the owner of all public land. Special officers were appointed to look into Religious condition: the income and expenditure of the state. Government money was spent Chola kings were saivites. They built many Siva silver and copper coins.

Merchant guilds were functioning to take care temples. Parantaka — I, for the welfare of the merchants and commerce. Agriculture was the main King Gandraditya and his occupation of the people. The ownership of the land had a high social queen Sembiyan madevi value. The landlords were members of the village administrative units. Parantaka — I covered the Trade and commerce: The Chola rulers contributed more for the Siva temple with gold at development of cottage industries.

Metal images and utensils were made Chidambaram. King in gold, silver, bronze, copper, brass etc. The economic prosperity and religious contributions increased Rajendra-I constructed Siva temple at Polonaaruva in Ceylon and the standard of life and values of the Chola society.

By building many Gangaikonda Cholapuram. Lands, Jewels and vessels were donated temples and mutts, the Chola kings contributed for the development of to these temples. The royal patronage increased the influence of Hinduism more. The temples and festivals of the Chola period will Chola Kings were tolerant towards other religions. Vishnu ever speak about the glory of the Cholas. Chola rulers supported the spread of Vaishnavisim. Saint Ramanujar was the contemporary of Chola Kings.

Try to know more about the great saint Ramanujar Thiruvalangadu copper plates, Karanthai plates and Anbil plates talk about the religious conditions of the Chola period. Pupil will be able to tell about the social and economic life Aipasivizha, were important festivals celebrated during the Chola period. Pupil will be able to explain about the growth of internal and Kanchipuram were important temple cities.

Bakthi songs were sung in external trades. Some people followed Buddhism and Jainism. Pupil will be able to tell about the religious conditions of the Cholas centres of learning also. Write True or False: development of painting 1. Sati is a marriage ceremony. Nambi 2. Agriculture was the backbone of social life. Andar Nambi compiled the 3. Brahmins were engaged in the works of the temple. Salt pans were there in Kanchipuram.

Nathamunigal compiled the 5. Chola kings followed the policy of religious tolerance. Scenes of Periyapuranam, II. Choose the correct answer: portraits of Lord Siva were 1 Brahadeeswarar temple was built by themes of the paintings on a. Fill in the blanks: Learning objectives: 1.

Weavers of Kanchi had the privilege of making royal robes to 1. To enable pupil to know the development of literature under 4. To enable pupil to acquire knowledge about the development IV.

Match the following: of art and architecture during the Chola period. Vanavan Mahadevi - Weavers of Kanchi The development of literature, art and architecture of the Chola 3. Patron of temples - Sundara Chola period promoted the cultural value of the Chola rule. The Cholas made 4. Kaveripoompattinam - Kundavi lot of improvements in these fields. The temples built by the Cholas 5.

Royal robes - Karikala Cholan increased the value of the bakthi culture of Tamil country. The development of the Chola literature, art and architecture created a V.

Answer briefly: profound impact on the cultural development of the Tamil country. What were the four castes created by varnasrama? Write about the foreign trade during the Chola period. Write about the festivals of the Chola period. Which cities were known as temple cities? Literature: The Chola rule marked a milestone in the history of Tamil literature.

The Chola kings gave many concessions and patronage to VI. Answer in detail: Tamil scholars and writers. Many great Tamil poets namely, Kalladanar, 1. Write about the status of women during the Chola rule. Write in detail about the temples of the Cholas. Literary styles like epics, parani, kovai, ula, kalambakam, pillaitamil and new works on grammar were famous during that period.

Writing meikkirthis, narration of historical incidents, singing songs on religious heros, were new literary trends of 24 25 that time. Kalladanar wrote Kalladam about lord Siva. Thiruttakkadevar Art and architecture: The Chola kings built many temples throughout wrote Seevagasinthamani to spread the idea of Jainism among the Tamil their kingdoms.

The temples of early Cholas are found in large number people. This work is respected and ranked as one of the mahakaviyams in the former Pudukottai region.

These Chola temples reveal the gradual in Tamil. Jayamkondan composed Kalingathuparani during the period evolution of the Chola art and architecture. The Chola kings earlier of Kulothunga-I. It talks about second kalinga war. Later they built brick temples. Kambar:Kambar wrote Kambaramayanam. The king also conferred the title Kavichakkravarthi on Kambar. Kambar had also written Sadagopar andhadhi, Mummani kovai. Sekkilar wrote Periya puranam during the period of Kulothunga-II.

Pugalendhi composed Nalavenba. Avvaiyar wrote Aathichudi and Kondrai vendan. Thirugnanasambandar wrote Thevaram. Literary Works: Kulothungan kovai and Thanjaivanan kovai are famous Tamil literature of that period. Great epics namely Valayapathi, Kundalakesi, Viracholiyam, Nannool belong to this period. Thevaram, Brahadeeswarar Temple at Tanjore Nandikalambagam, Bharatha venba and Sivgnanabodam are important literary works of this period. The Chola literature increased the cultural The first Chola ruler Vijayalaya Chola built temple at values of the Chola society.

This is a stone temple.

It is one of the finest examples of the early Chola temple architecture. Balasubramaniya temple of Parani is a form of war poem. Parani explains the Kannanur in Pudukottai region and Thirukkatalai temple were built during circumstances which led to the war.

Nageswarar temple at Kumbakonam is famous It also gives details about war. Muvarkoil of Kodumbalur. They are roofs. The value of sculpture is very much felt on Chola works. The good examples of the later Chola architecture and sculpture. Realism dominated sculpture of the Chola period. Scenes from Ramayanam Mahabharatam, Puranas and Besides all these temples of the Chola period, the greatest lives of the 63 Nayanmars are sculptured in narrative panels on the landmark in the history of south Indian architecture is Brhadeeswarar walls of temples.

This is also called as big temple. It has many architectural significance. It was built by Rajaraja-I. This is the largest and tallest temple Tamilnadu. Rajdendra Chola built a temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram which is also equally famous.

King Rajendra Chola added credit to the Chola art and architecture. This temple is first of its kind in the south Indian architecture. Rajaraja-II built Airavatheeswarar temple at Dharasuram. Special features of Chola architecture: The Cholas followed the Pallava style of architecture. Sanctum of the Chola temples are both circular and square in size. Inner side of the external walls and the sanctum were beautified. On the upper side of the sanctum special vimanas are built. Dome shaped sikhara and kalasa were also there on the top of Gopurams.

Chola temples are noted for the sculptures and ornamental works. Gopurams of these temples were meaningful. Many temples are having pillared mandapams namely arthamandapa, Portraits: The Cholas excelled the Pallavas in the art of portrait making. Sculptures and inscriptions are also The best specimens of portraits are found on the walls of Koranganatha fixed on the walls of these temples. They are good examples Sculpture: Stone and metal sculputures are found in plenty in Chola of Chola art of portrait making.

They depict the socio religious ideas of the Chola period. The Nataraja sculpture is world famous not only for its beauty but also for Paintings: The art of paintings flourished. Figures were painted with its spirutual meaning. Vishnu idol is placed in Vaishnava temples. A realism. The proficiency of the Chola painters are seen on their paintings. Paintings in Big temple are good examples. Scenes of Periyapuranam The Cholas made use of sculptures to decorate the walls, pillars and are beautifully depicted.

Kailasanathar temple at Kanchipuram, Vishnu 28 29 temple at Malaiyadipatti contain fine specimen of the Chola paintings. Inscriptions refer about Ariyakuthu, Chakki koothu and Santhi Rajaraja-I and Rajendra contributed more for the development of the koothu.

Chola literature speaks about the cultural glory of the Cholas. Hundreds of temples built by the Chola kings. Particularly Music: During the Chola period the art of music was developed. Brahadeeswarar Big temple temple at Tanjore and temple at Twenty three panns were used in music. The seven music alphabets sa, Gangaikonda Cholapuram are cultural monuments of the Cholas.

The ri, ga, ma, pa, da, ni were used. The hymns of Alwars and Nayanmars glorious Chola culture created very big impact on Tamil society and were sung in every temple. Nambiandar nambi and Nathamuni imbibed lot of cultural values like bakthi upon the Tamil society. Books were written Learning outcomes: on music. Several musicians were appointed in Brahadeeswarar temple.

Pupil can tell about the cultural development during the Chola Drums, udukkai, veena, flute were famous music instruments. Sagadakkottigal formed a group of musicians. Endowments were made 2. Pupil will be able to explain the growth of literature under to promote music. Musicians were honoured by the kings.

Temples the Cholas. Pupil will be able to tell about the development of the art and architecture of the Cholas.

Dance: The Chola kings patronised the art of dance. Lord Siva was represented as the exponent of Karana dance. Write true or false: Natarajar temple at Chidamparam and Sarangapani temple at 1. Kalladam was written by Avvaiyar. Kumbakonam have dancing poses of Lord Nataraja. Rajaraja-I 2. Kambaramayanam was written by Sekkilar appointed dancing girls in the big temple at Tanjore. There were 3. King Vijayalaya built Choleswara temple two dance directors to co-ordinate these dancing girls.

Dance dramas 4. Chola temples are both circular and square in size were also performed on stages at festival times. Chola kings made 5. Brahadeeswarar temple is a famous Chola temple endowments to promote the art of dancing.

Fill in the blanks: Drama: The Cholas promoted the art of drama. Music and dance 1. Many types of theatres and stages were there 2. Rajarajeswara natakam and Rajarajavijayam were 3. Drama actors received honours girls in the big temple. Koothu is one type of drama.The proficiency of the Chola painters are seen on their paintings.

Sun God Temple - Rajaraja-I 5. There Marakanam, Kanyakumari were commercially famous. Salt pans of to the temples. The ownership of the land had a high social queen Sembiyan madevi value. Spinning and weaving were familiar in Kancheepuram and Art and Architecture: The streets were country.

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